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"Fabrics or textiles are flexible materials that have been made with woven fibers. These fibers can be natural that come from animals or plants (wool / cotton), artificial that are made with natural raw material (scratches) or synthetic that are produced by chemical processes (nylon / polyester) Sometimes fibers are also mixed to achieve certain qualities in a fabric.
The most common materials that the industry has used since ancient times are the following:
Wool: it is a natural fiber that is extracted mainly from sheep and other animals such as llamas. The use of this material comes from the Neolithic. It is used to make gloves, blankets ...
Silk: it is a natural fiber that is made up of proteins. Several animals produce silk, but the textile industry only uses silk-worm production in manufacturing. It was used in China around 2700 BC. In Europe it was known in the second century BC. C as a textile material.
Flax: It is a plant and its stem is used to make fabrics. It is the first vegetable fiber that the textile industry accepted. In Egypt, mummies could be wrapped in linen.
Cotton: it is a vegetable textile fiber and grows around the seeds of the cotton plant. It is the most important natural fiber. Its importance began in the 19th century and today a high percentage of the consumption of textile fibers is cotton.
Hemp: it is the fiber obtained from the cannabis plant that is used in the textile industry. It has been used in many cultures for its textile power and also with other applications.
Biso: it is a natural fiber that is obtained from the filaments that some mollusks secrete. It is a kind of linen with a very fine texture.
Textile recycling consists of reusing or reprocessing used clothing, fibrous material or clothing scraps from manufacturing processes. Textile waste appears in urban solid waste such as discarded clothing, footwear, sheets, towels…. These wastes are collected from different sources and classified and processed according to the state of the material. Consumption in the textile industry is very high and natural resources can be depleted, for this reason recycling is very important. The most commonly used technique for recycling textiles is mechanical processing. In the case of cotton, an initial classification is made, then it is classified by color and then shredded and separated into fibers. In the process called carding, the recycled fibers (of lower quality and shorter) are spun from new fibers. Chemical processing is used on synthetic fibers as they can be broken down and recreated, but it is not a very widely used process. "