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"Titanium (Ti) is the chemical element with atomic number 22 of group 4 of the periodic table of elements. It is a gray and transition metal. It is one of the most abundant metallic elements in the earth's crust. pure, it is highly resistant to corrosion and has the highest hardness-density ratio among metals. Its hardness is compared to that of steel. The most common compound is titanium dioxide. This metal is neither magnetic nor a good conductor of electricity, but it has good heat transfer properties, it has high ductility, its melting point is 1668 ° C, and it has a density of 4507 kg / m3.
In steel alloys, titanium is used to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Titanium frequently forms alloys with iron, copper, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, and aluminum, among others.
Titanium is not found free in nature, it is found in the forms of rutile and ilmenite. First, it is mined from rutile (titanium oxide) that is abundant in coastal sands. It is generally mined in Australia and South Africa. The production of this metal is done in 4 main steps: reduction of the titanium mineral in a porous form of sponge, melting of it, primary manufacturing where general purpose products are created and to finish, secondary manufacturing of final forms from the primary ones.
The extraction of the metal is carried out by the Kroll method or the Hunter method.
In the Hunter process, rutile is mixed with chlorine and coke which involves the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with sodium in a steel pump at 700-800 ° C. The Kroll method replaced it in the 1940s.
Currently, there are several titanium refining projects, but the Kroll method is still widely used. In this process, the titanium tetrachloride compound is reduced with ground magnesium and to avoid oxidation it is done in an argon atmosphere.
The most recent process is called the FCC Cambridge process. Titanium dioxide powder is used as the raw material to make titanium metal. It has fewer steps than the Kroll method, takes less time, and alloys can be produced using certain oxide powder mixtures.
Over the past decades, various fusion methods have been used for titanium, but better control is still being sought in the fusion in order to make more use of the titanium scrap. Titanium alloys at high temperatures have a high reactivity, therefore the process is quite complex.
Recycling and processing titanium uses less energy than obtaining and producing it from raw materials. This is one of the reasons to recycle this metal, as it pollutes less. Recycled titanium is not as valuable as copper, but it is more valuable than stainless steel or other ferrous metals. Titanium scrap is the main resource for recycling this metal. The recycling of this is high. "